Excerpt: .Net Framework, a platform developed by Microsoft to build and execute Windows applications. It consists of Coding languages, developer tools, predefined library, and all the other components required to build an excellent website or application for a mass user base.

Table of contents:


       Who are the users of the .NET framework?

       Major Components of the .NET framework

       What are the design principles of the .NET framework?

       Some of the shortcomings of the .NET framework



The main purpose of the .NET Framework is to be the best platform for creating and running software applications that would work well on the Windows Platform. One can develop and run many operations like calculation, forecast, accounting, gaming, etc., with the various usages of the .NET framework. To know more about the .Net Framework, you must primarily know its component. This article will explore the .NET framework and its major components.

Who are the users of the .NET framework?

People who use the .NET framework include software developers and application users. Usually, it comes built-in with the Windows OS to avoid platform dependency of software. In the case of software developers, the .NET framework is operative in various applications. It includes websites, desktop apps, visual audio, etc. Visual audio is fundamentally an IDE or integrated development environment that provides productivity tools for developing and other debugging capabilities. Explore for .NET Framework for complete information.

Major Components of the .NET framework

  1. Common Language Runtime or CLR 

CLR is a runtime environment of the .NET framework with the unique attribute of having an interoperable runtime environment. It provides the ability and environment to run all sorts of.NET programs. CLR also undertakes the conversion of source code to native code. It is a double-step procedure in which the source code is first converted to MSIL or Microsoft Intermediate Language; then, it uses JIT compilers to convert it into native code from MSIL code. CLR fulfills all the tasks except handling, thread management, and memory. It also contains GC or Garbage Collector, which looks after memory management by cleaning up out-of-scope objects from memory. 

  1. Base Class Library

The base class library is vested with the duty of encapsulating many similar functions that the developers use. They are foundational and act as a base for all sorts of .NET libraries. Their development is done with a generic implementation with a policy that guarantees high performance, such as high throughput, low latency, security, etc. The superset Framework Class Library covers the element of BCL. It consists of classes in namespaces such as Data System and Diagnosis System. Text, etc. 

  1. Framework Class Library

FCL or Framework Class Library is a collection of interfaces, data, namespace, etc., and it also contains the value types it uses for.NET applications. Base Class Library is the subset of it. It also has built-in classes that work with base and user-defined data types. There are three functionalities of FCL that are:

- Frameworks: It consists of the technology one can utilize to make ASP.NET web apps, WPF, etc.

- Wrapper Around OS functionality: It includes classes that perform like a wrapper for the communication with the components of OS like network features, file system, and console app operation.

- Utility Features: It consists of a wide range of collections of classes like a stack, queue, example list, etc.


  1. Common Type System

 The CLR carries out the task of declaration, employment, and management of the types with the help of the common type system. They are essentially a prerequisite to the System of integration of a variety of different languages. CTS is vested with the duty to provide type safety, high-performance code execution, and the definition of the rules that are mandatory for languages. It can also provide basic data types like boolean, int32, char, uInt64, etc.

 Regarding the .Net, every type comes under either value or reference. Value types are that kind of data types in which the objects have an accurate reflection of the value of the real object. On the other side, reference types are objects that get a reference from a reference to their real value. Contrary to value types, when a reference type has an assignment of a variable, the object's original value undergoes transfer without creating a copy. 

If we look into the value types, we find their storage in a stack while, on the other hand, the reference types have their storage in a managed heap.

There are, in total, five varieties of types in the .NET

-       Classes

-       Enumerations

-       Structures

-       Delegates

-       Interfaces

Reference types only cover Classes and Delegates. Value types encapsulate Enumeration and Structures. It is the interface that comes in between both types.

  1. Common Language Specification

CLS or Common Language Specification is covered under CLR as its subset. It is quite useful when codes of various programming languages based on the .NET framework have to undergo the same solution. There are a lot of different types of programming languages that consist of .Net as their background. These programming languages also consist of their syntax.

 If we consider a situation- In C#, there is a creation of 2 techniques, namely Pascal and Camel Casing. There will be an acceptance of the code, and in the same solution, if a value-based .NET project finds an addition and refers to that C# project, then there are chances of error. 

To avoid these kinds of compilation, they must comply with the common language specifications when there is a conversion into MSIL from the source code. If they fail to do so, there will be a warning sign showing as a heads-up. 

To learn more about .NET Frameworks , .NET Training will help you to gain in-depth knowledge into the technology.


What are the design principles of the .NET framework?

There are numerous design principles when it comes to the .NET framework. There are the following:

  1. Portability: The applications built with the help of the .NET framework are compatible with all sorts of Windows platforms. Microsoft is also planning on making its products compatible with other platforms such as Linux and iOS.
  2. Interoperability: One gets tremendous back support when using the .NET framework. Suppose you are in a situation where you are provided with an application built on the older version of the .NET framework. You have tried to operate it on the same application on a machine with the higher version of it. In this case, the application is still workable because, with every release, there is a guarantee from Microsoft that the older Framework seamlessly works with the latest one. 
  3. Security: The security system of the.NET Framework, to put it in layman's terms, is top-notch. The security framework that is in-built into the System helps in the assessment and verification of applications. The applications are given the option to give a clear-cut definition of their security system. The user is then given access to the running application or the code with the utilization of each security technique.
  4. Simplified development: There is a variety of tools that the .NET framework utilizes to package applications that are founded on it. These packages can then be used for distribution to the client machines and will also automatically install the application. 
  5. Memory Management: The handling and operations of the memory management are done by the Common Language runtime. The .Net Framework is vested with the ability to see any resources that are not put to use by any currently executing programs. The resources would, with time, have their release as per that. The "Garbage Collector," as discussed above, is software that functions as an important element of the.Net Framework and is used for this specific. The garbage collector must continuously monitor and assess the System whose resources are underutilized and releases them as necessary at regular intervals.
  6. Speed: If there is any attribute of the .NET framework that makes it unique from its counterpart is its speed. It has set a benchmark for all the web-application frameworks.
  7. Side-by-side execution: Since there is an ability of the .NET framework to work on multiple versions with the help of CLR on the same machine, it serves as a great advantage to the developers to run a lot of apps side by side. It is very helpful while making comparisons, and it also simplifies troubleshooting. 

Some of the shortcomings of the .NET framework

Object-Oriented programming, which has been serving as the fundamental foundation of .NET , bases programs on objects instead of actions. It also works on data instead of logic. The Entity Framework supports the creation of data-oriented software applications regarding the.NET Framework. The entity forms a link between SQL databases and the object-oriented.NET Framework. The Entity Framework, as some developers feel, is inadequate to provide the necessary flexibility and does not support all the probable database designs and architectures.


.NET has become a revolution because of its ability to provide many built-in features and support sturdy building applications with the help of its various components. It has served as a major software development framework and is also responsible for propping up a lot of applications that we know of. Most of the organizations serving application and software development use .Net Framework. Since the world is revolutionary, adding up the latest skills can help you get better career progression.

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