For classes, this can be done pretty easily using the standard java reflection classOf method. For Scala objects, it is a bit more work, but it still can be done:

trait SomeTrait { def someMethod: String}
object SomeObject extends SomeTrait { def someMethod = "something"}

class SomeClass extends SomeTrait { def someMethod = "something"}

object Main {
 def main(args:Array[String]) = {
    val someClassTrait:SomeTrait = Class.forName("SomeClass").newInstance().asInstanceOf[SomeTrait]
    println("calling someClassTrait: " + someClassTrait.someMethod)
    val objectName = "SomeObject$"
    val cons = Class.forName(objectName).getDeclaredConstructors(); 
    val someObjectTrait:SomeTrait = cons(0).newInstance().asInstanceOf[SomeTrait]
    println("calling someObjectTrait: " + someObjectTrait.someMethod)

calling someClassTrait: something
calling someObjectTrait: something


Since scala 2.10, we can use the reflection of Module:

import scala.reflect.runtime.universe

val runtimeMirror = universe.runtimeMirror(getClass.getClassLoader)
val module = runtimeMirror.staticModule("SomeObject")
val obj = runtimeMirror.reflectModule(module)
val someTrait:SomeTrait = obj.instance.asInstanceOf[SomeTrait]  


def companion[T](name : String)(implicit man: Manifest[T]) : T = 
    Class.forName(name + "$").getField("MODULE$").get(man.erasure).asInstanceOf[T]

val result = companion[SomeTrait]("SomeObject").someMethod

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