score:422

Accepted answer

You can write a custom hook to provide you a previous props using useRef

function usePrevious(value) {
  const ref = useRef();
  useEffect(() => {
    ref.current = value;
  });
  return ref.current;
}

and then use it in useEffect

const Component = (props) => {
    const {receiveAmount, sendAmount } = props
    const prevAmount = usePrevious({receiveAmount, sendAmount});
    useEffect(() => {
        if(prevAmount.receiveAmount !== receiveAmount) {

         // process here
        }
        if(prevAmount.sendAmount !== sendAmount) {

         // process here
        }
    }, [receiveAmount, sendAmount])
}

However its clearer and probably better and clearer to read and understand if you use two useEffect separately for each change id you want to process them separately

score:-2

In your case(simple object):

useEffect(()=>{
  // your logic
}, [rate, sendAmount, receiveAmount])

In other case(complex object)

const {cityInfo} = props;
useEffect(()=>{
  // some logic
}, [cityInfo.cityId])

score:0

You can use useImmer opposed to useState and access the state. Example: https://css-tricks.com/build-a-chat-app-using-react-hooks-in-100-lines-of-code/

score:0

I did not like any of the answers above, I wanted the ability to pass an array of booleans and if one of them is true so rerender

/**
 * effect fires if one of the conditions in the dependency array is true
 */
export const useEffectCompare = (callback: () => void, conditions: boolean[], effect = useEffect) => {
  const shouldUpdate = useRef(false);
  if (conditions.some((cond) => cond)) shouldUpdate.current = !shouldUpdate.current;
  effect(callback, [shouldUpdate.current]);
};

//usage - will fire because one of the dependencies is true.
useEffectCompare(() => {
  console.log('test!');
}, [false, true]);

score:2

Be careful with most voted answers. For more complex scenarios above variations of usePrevious can give you too much re-renders (1) or the same value as original (2).

We have to:

  1. Add [value] as dependency in useEffect to re-run only if value changes
  2. Assign JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(value)) (or some deep copy) to ref.current insinde useEffect to prevent passing the reference of state to ref instead of the value

Upgraded hook:

const usePrevious = <T>(value: T): T => {
  const ref: any = useRef<T>()

  useEffect(() => {
    ref.current = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(value))
  }, [value])

  return ref.current
}

score:3

Using Ref will introduce a new kind of bug into the app.

Let's see this case using usePrevious that someone commented before:

  1. prop.minTime: 5 ==> ref.current = 5 | set ref.current
  2. prop.minTime: 5 ==> ref.current = 5 | new value is equal to ref.current
  3. prop.minTime: 8 ==> ref.current = 5 | new value is NOT equal to ref.current
  4. prop.minTime: 5 ==> ref.current = 5 | new value is equal to ref.current

As we can see here, we are not updating the internal ref because we are using useEffect

score:4

For really simple prop comparison you can use useEffect to easily check to see if a prop has updated.

const myComponent = ({ prop }) => {
  useEffect(() => {
    ---Do stuffhere----
  }, [prop])
}

useEffect will then only run your code if the prop changes.

score:4

Here's a custom hook that I use which I believe is more intuitive than using usePrevious.

import { useRef, useEffect } from 'react'

// useTransition :: Array a => (a -> Void, a) -> Void
//                              |_______|  |
//                                  |      |
//                              callback  deps
//
// The useTransition hook is similar to the useEffect hook. It requires
// a callback function and an array of dependencies. Unlike the useEffect
// hook, the callback function is only called when the dependencies change.
// Hence, it's not called when the component mounts because there is no change
// in the dependencies. The callback function is supplied the previous array of
// dependencies which it can use to perform transition-based effects.
const useTransition = (callback, deps) => {
  const func = useRef(null)

  useEffect(() => {
    func.current = callback
  }, [callback])

  const args = useRef(null)

  useEffect(() => {
    if (args.current !== null) func.current(...args.current)
    args.current = deps
  }, deps)
}

You'd use useTransition as follows.

useTransition((prevRate, prevSendAmount, prevReceiveAmount) => {
  if (sendAmount !== prevSendAmount || rate !== prevRate && sendAmount > 0) {
    const newReceiveAmount = sendAmount * rate
    // do something
  } else {
    const newSendAmount = receiveAmount / rate
    // do something
  }
}, [rate, sendAmount, receiveAmount])

Hope that helps.

score:5

Since state isn't tightly coupled with component instance in functional components, previous state cannot be reached in useEffect without saving it first, for instance, with useRef. This also means that state update was possibly incorrectly implemented in wrong place because previous state is available inside setState updater function.

This is a good use case for useReducer which provides Redux-like store and allows to implement respective pattern. State updates are performed explicitly, so there's no need to figure out which state property is updated; this is already clear from dispatched action.

Here's an example what it may look like:

function reducer({ sendAmount, receiveAmount, rate }, action) {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "sendAmount":
      sendAmount = action.payload;
      return {
        sendAmount,
        receiveAmount: sendAmount * rate,
        rate
      };
    case "receiveAmount":
      receiveAmount = action.payload;
      return {
        sendAmount: receiveAmount / rate,
        receiveAmount,
        rate
      };
    case "rate":
      rate = action.payload;
      return {
        sendAmount: receiveAmount ? receiveAmount / rate : sendAmount,
        receiveAmount: sendAmount ? sendAmount * rate : receiveAmount,
        rate
      };
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
}

function handleChange(e) {
  const { name, value } = e.target;
  dispatch({
    type: name,
    payload: value
  });
}

...
const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(reducer, {
  rate: 2,
  sendAmount: 0,
  receiveAmount: 0
});
...

score:7

I just published react-delta which solves this exact sort of scenario. In my opinion, useEffect has too many responsibilities.

Responsibilities

  1. It compares all values in its dependency array using Object.is
  2. It runs effect/cleanup callbacks based on the result of #1

Breaking Up Responsibilities

react-delta breaks useEffect's responsibilities into several smaller hooks.

Responsibility #1

Responsibility #2

In my experience, this approach is more flexible, clean, and concise than useEffect/useRef solutions.

score:7

If you prefer a useEffect replacement approach:

const usePreviousEffect = (fn, inputs = []) => {
  const previousInputsRef = useRef([...inputs])

  useEffect(() => {
    fn(previousInputsRef.current)
    previousInputsRef.current = [...inputs]
  }, inputs)
}

And use it like this:

usePreviousEffect(
  ([prevReceiveAmount, prevSendAmount]) => {
    if (prevReceiveAmount !== receiveAmount) // side effect here
    if (prevSendAmount !== sendAmount) // side effect here
  },
  [receiveAmount, sendAmount]
)

Note that the first time the effect executes, the previous values passed to your fn will be the same as your initial input values. This would only matter to you if you wanted to do something when a value did not change.

score:35

Going off the accepted answer, an alternative solution that doesn't require a custom hook:

const Component = ({ receiveAmount, sendAmount }) => {
  const prevAmount = useRef({ receiveAmount, sendAmount }).current;
  useEffect(() => {
    if (prevAmount.receiveAmount !== receiveAmount) {
     // process here
    }
    if (prevAmount.sendAmount !== sendAmount) {
     // process here
    }
    return () => { 
      prevAmount.receiveAmount = receiveAmount;
      prevAmount.sendAmount = sendAmount;
    };
  }, [receiveAmount, sendAmount]);
};

This assumes you actually need reference to the previous values for anything in the "process here" bits. Otherwise unless your conditionals are beyond a straight !== comparison, the simplest solution here would just be:

const Component = ({ receiveAmount, sendAmount }) => {
  useEffect(() => {
     // process here
  }, [receiveAmount]);

  useEffect(() => {
     // process here
  }, [sendAmount]);
};

score:59

Option 1 - run useEffect when value changes

const Component = (props) => {

  useEffect(() => {
    console.log("val1 has changed");
  }, [val1]);

  return <div>...</div>;
};

Demo

Option 2 - useHasChanged hook

Comparing a current value to a previous value is a common pattern, and justifies a custom hook of it's own that hides implementation details.

const Component = (props) => {
  const hasVal1Changed = useHasChanged(val1)

  useEffect(() => {
    if (hasVal1Changed ) {
      console.log("val1 has changed");
    }
  });

  return <div>...</div>;
};

const useHasChanged= (val: any) => {
    const prevVal = usePrevious(val)
    return prevVal !== val
}

const usePrevious = (value) => {
    const ref = useRef();
    useEffect(() => {
      ref.current = value;
    });
    return ref.current;
}


Demo

score:111

Incase anybody is looking for a TypeScript version of usePrevious:

In a .tsx module:

import { useEffect, useRef } from "react";

const usePrevious = <T extends unknown>(value: T): T | undefined => {
  const ref = useRef<T>();
  useEffect(() => {
    ref.current = value;
  });
  return ref.current;
};

Or in a .ts module:

import { useEffect, useRef } from "react";

const usePrevious = <T>(value: T): T | undefined => {
  const ref = useRef<T>();
  useEffect(() => {
    ref.current = value;
  });
  return ref.current;
};

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