You can hide the labels that are not in you datatable using the xAxis formatter

  xAxis: {
    labels: {
      formatter: function() {
        if (this.chart.series[0].xData.indexOf(this.value) == -1) {
          return null;
        } else {
          return this.value

here is the full fidle


If you want to hide the space the only thing i can think of is to make highcharts think that the categories are string by adding A to the first year in the table <th>1990A</th> and the in the label formatter replace A with an empty string

Here is the full fiddle

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