I think this guy implemented very well a chart that is more complex than your chart:

Bullet Chart in D3

enter image description here

However, if you want to get to know D3, and to use it in an intelligent and productive way, my strong advice is:

Don't take shortcuts.

This means that before you start implementing anything, you go through at least one good tutorial, and take at least brief look at D3 documentation.

A good tutorial is here. Go through ALL 20 lessons. Implement ALL examples on your local machine. You can do it in several days. And only then you come back to your example.

Don't be seduced by stories that you can find on the net like "I started with D3 yesterday, and now I create craziest visualizations". They are either lies or profound ignorance.

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